Tuesday, July 25, 2023

Flexibility is the hallmark of any successful education system and it is an essential component of NEP 2020: Prof. S. Sudarshan, IIT, Bombay


Ministry of Education
azadi ka amrit mahotsavg20-india-2023

NEP 2020 is an aspirational document which shows the way forward along with Indian knowledge base : Deputy Commissioner, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

NEP 2020 promotes multidisciplinary approach to encourage students to explore subjects and develop well-rounded skills: Joint Director, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship

Press Conference on the occasion of ‘Three Years of the National Education Policy 2020’ organised in Mumbai

Posted On: 25 JUL 2023 5:19PM by PIB Mumbai


Mumbai : 25 July 2023

“Flexibility is an essential component of NEP 2020. Flexibility is the hallmark of any successful education system and it creates a well grounded individual” said Prof. S. Sudarshan, Deputy Director, IIT, Bombay He was speaking at a press conference organised to celebrate ‘Three Years of the National Education Policy 2020’ at the Press Club, Mumbai. Also present on the occasion were , Prof. Avinash Mahajan, Dean (Academic Programmes), IIT, Prof. S. Sudarshan, Dy. Director, IIT, Ms. Sona Seth, Deputy Commissioner, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Mumbai Region and Shri. Ketan Patel Joint Director, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship.



Elaborating on how NEP has made way for flexibility in higher education, Prof. S. Sudarshan went on to state how core courses and a number of electives which are comparable to the number of core courses at Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay allow flexibility to students. “Students therefore have wide freedom to choose courses across disciplines. Apart from flexibility, new disciplines beyond traditional lines envisaged by the NEP have been encouraged at IIT such as the School of Management, School for Entrepreneurship and others” he stated.

Prof. Avinash Mahajan, Dean (Academic Programmes) further gave information about the different programs at IIT, Bombay that align with various provisions of the NEP 2020. They are as follows:

  1. A credit based system for both core and elective courses.
  2. Electives allowing students to tailor their own curriculum.
  3. Credit based internships.
  4. Exchange semesters allowing greater exposure to students.
  5. Early exit possibility.
  6. Robust programs with foreign universities to facilitate internationalization.
  7. Educational Outreach through online and offline mode for skilling 

Addressing the gathering on the occasion, Ms. Sona Seth, Deputy Commissioner, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Mumbai Region stated, “The NEP is a robust document which keeps abreast with latest pedagogy. It is an aspirational document which shows us the way forward without leaving behind the traditional Indian knowledge base. Being child centric it brings out the unique capabilities of every child. The effort of Kendriya Vidyalayas is to create a schooling system that nurtures critical and creative thinking.”

Ms. Seth also elaborated on the various initiatives undertaken by the Kendriya Vidyalayas on the backdrop of the NEP 2020. They are as follows :

  1. In alignment with the recommendation of NEP – 2020, the age of admission in Class I was revised to 6+ years from the academic year 2022 – 23 in all Kendriya Vidyalayas.
  2. Tracking of the progress of students of Classes I, II and III in terms of the attainment of Lakshyas under the  NIPUN Initiative is being monitored by recording the same through a web-application linked to the PIMS.
  3. Introduction of Balvatika as outlined in NEP 2020, in 49 KVs having permanent building on pilot basis in the session 2022-23 and 5477 Children admitted in all the three classes of Balvatika
  4. Vidya Pravesh - NCERT has developed a 3 Months Play Based ‘School Preparation Module’ for grade I named ‘Vidya Pravesh’ which is being implemented in all the KVs across the country from the academic year 2021-22
  5. National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage (NCF FS) -  Launched on 20th October, 2022, is the first ever integrated Curriculum Framework for children between ages 3-8 in India which is followed by KVs.
  6. Introduction of vocational and skill straining class VIII onwards.
  7. Making Parent as a Stakeholder
  8. Training to Teachers through NISHTHA program. 

Apart from this KVs have also become active participants in various schemes and projects such as Vidyanjali, PM e-VIDYA, Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and others.

Learn more here -

Speaking about the aims and achievements of the Ministry of Skills Development and Entrepreneurship, in the context of the NEP 2020, Shri. Ketan Patel Joint Director, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship said, “The main intension of the Ministry of Skills Development and Entrepreneurship is to develop a skilled manpower not only for our own country but to the whole world. NEP recognizes the importance of holistic development to foster the cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical skills of students. It promotes a multidisciplinary approach that encourages students to explore various subjects and develop well-rounded skill sets.”

He further elaborated on some of the various aspects under NEP, 2020 focusing on skill development, which are -

a. Integration of vocational education with general education

b. Convergence and integration of skills across disciplines/sectors

c. Technology-enabled learning

d. Entrepreneurship and life skills

e. Teacher training and professional development

f. Experiential learning through internship and apprenticeship

g. Continuous evaluation

h. Fostering global competence in skill development

i. Inclusive and sustainable skills

j. Skilling in regional languages

k. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for a Credit Framework, facilitating mobility between

general and vocational education, creating a seamless educational journey for students.

He concluded by emphasizing that the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship remains committed to its vision of creating a skilled and enterprising India. These achievements underscore the ministry's unwavering dedication to empowering the youth with the tools they need to succeed in an ever-changing world. Through innovative initiatives, strategic partnerships, and inclusive policies, MSDE is shaping the future of India's workforce and driving economic growth.

Learn more here –

A series of Press Conferences are taking place across the nation as a prelude to the third Anniversary of the National Education Policy 2020 on 29th August 2023. Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will inaugurate the second Akhil Bharatiya Shiksha Samagam which is coinciding with the 3rd anniversary of National Education Policy 2020, on 29th July 2023 at ITPO, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. The two-day event is being organised by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship. The Prime Minister will be launching various initiatives on the occasion.

About Akhil Bhartiya Shiksha Samagam (29th – 30th July)

India aims to become a 5 trillion economy in the period of Amrit Kaal, all sectors of the economy have to be bolstered and strengthened with knowledge-oriented leadership and a skilled workforce. NEP 2020 paves the way for developing and grooming our youth for such a responsibility, preparing them for emerging job roles of the future. The policy emphasizes developing the foundational and higher cognitive capacities of each individual such as critical thinking and problem solving. Therefore, there is a need for the leadership of academia, policy experts, and industry experts to come together for brainstorming and devising implementation strategy. The event will include sixteen sessions spread over 2 days from 29th to 30th July, discussions will be held on Access to Quality Education and Governance, Equitable and Inclusive Education, Issues of Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Group (SEDG), National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF), Indian knowledge System, Creating Synergy between education and Skilling Future of Work, Internationalisation of Education, among others.

The sessions will be attended by around 3000 participants which will include, Principal Secretaries of Education / Skill Department of States / UTs, Directors of IITs, NITs, IIITs, IISERs, IISC, Vice-chancellors of Central, State and Private Universities, Heads of other HEIs, faculties, Principals / Teachers / Students of Schools, ITIs, Heads / representatives of Regulatory Bodies like NCERT, CBSE, UGC, AICTE, NCTE, NCVET, SSCs, NSDC, Heads / representatives of CII, FICCI, NASSCOM, ASSHOCHAM etc.

Another very attractive element of the celebrations is a multimedia exhibition showcasing the best initiatives from the world of school and higher education and the skill ecosystem. Two hundred multimedia stalls will be set up by institutions and organisation under education and skill landscape, industry, and key stakeholders. Over 2 lakh attendees would be visiting the exhibition over the two days, including students, youth volunteers and participants of Yuva Sangam.

The two-days programme will end with valedictory session. The event will also be attended by  Union Minister for Education and, Ministers of State for Education, along with Sanjay Kumar, Secretary, Department of School Education & Literacy, K. Sanjay Murthy, Secretary, Department of Higher Education, Atul Kumar Tiwari, Secretary, Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, heads of the Autonomous Bodies, and officials of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.

The Samagam will provide a platform for experts of schools, higher educational institutions, and skilling institutions to discuss, deliberate and share insights, strategies, success stories and best practices in implementing the NEP 2020.







Vision of NEP 2020

  • Transform India into a vibrant knowledge society and global knowledge superpower through broad-based, flexible, multidisciplinary education suited to 21st-century needs.
  • Bringing out the unique capabilities of each student.
  • Promote critical thinking rather than rote learning, focus on learning instead of studying, encouragement to scientific temperament.
  • Policy for 21st Century India/ Atmanirbhar Bharat
  • Integration of Global with Local
  • Instilling among learners a deep-rooted pride in being Indian and developing knowledge, skills and values that make them truly global citizens.

Major Highlights

  • NEP 2020 aims for Universalization of Education from pre-school to secondary level with 100 % GER in school education by 2030
  • NEP 2020 will bring 20 million out of school children back into the main stream
  • New 5+3+3+4 school curriculum with 12 years of schooling and 3 years of pre-schooling will be introduced.
  • Emphasis on Foundational Literacy and Numeracyno rigid separation between academic streams, extracurricular streams in schools
  • Setting up of Gender Inclusion Fund to provide equitable quality education to girls and transgender students.
  • Special Education Zones for disadvantaged regions and groups.
  • Teaching up to at least Grade 5 to be in mother tongue/ regional language
  • Assessment Reforms with 360 degree Holistic Progress Card, tracking student progress for achieving Learning Outcomes
  • Every Child will come out of School adept in at least one Skill
  • GER in higher education to be raised to 50 % by 2035 ; 35 million seats to be added in higher education
  • Higher Education curriculum to have flexibility of subjects
  • Multiple Entry / Exit to be allowed with appropriate certification
  • Academic Bank of Credits to be established to facilitate Transfer of Credits
  • National Research Foundation to be established to foster a strong research culture
  • Light but Tight Regulation of higher education, single regulator with four separate verticals for different functions
  • Increased use of technology with equity. A National Educational Technology Forum has been created
  • Curricular reforms to integrate 21st Century Skills, Mathematical Thinking and Scientific temper
  • Multilingualism to be promoted in both schools and higher education. Even complex subjects like Engineering are being offered in over 13 Indian languages
  • Wealth of Indian Knowledge Systems to be incorporated into mainstream



1. PM Schools for Rising India (PM SHRI) – is a centrally sponsored scheme intended to prepare schools of excellence. All categories of schools i.e. Primary, Elementary, Secondary and Senior Secondary school will be selected under this initiative to be transformed as Exemplar Schools. The Scheme is proposed to be implemented over a period of 5 years w.e.f. 2022-23 to 2026-27. A total of 6448 schools across 30 State/ UTs/ Institutions (i.e., Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodaya Vidyalayas) will be covered in the first phase.

2NIPUN Bharat: National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy (NIPUN BHARAT) - The objective is to achieve foundational literacy and numeracy among children, that is the ability to read and understand simple text and do simple arithmetic by the end of class three. This competency is considered the foundation that is critical for any future learning or skilling.

3. Vidya Pravesh: NCERT has developed a 3 Months Play Based ‘School Preparation Module’ for grade I named ‘Vidya Pravesh’ The module is essentially around 12 weeks of developmentally appropriate instruction for the children entering of Grade I to bolster a child’s pre-literacy, pre-numeracy, cognitive and social skills. As on date, 33 States/UTs except Sikkim, Manipur and Kerala have implemented Vidya Pravesh from the year 2022-23. Under this, 1,80,13,930 students from 8,77,793 schools participated across States/UTs

4National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage (NCF FS) launched on 20th October, 2022, is the first ever integrated Curriculum Framework for children between ages 3-8 in India. It is a direct outcome of the 5+3+3+4 ‘curricular and pedagogical’ structure that NEP 2020 has come out with for School Education. Following which, Jadui Pitara: Learning Teaching Material (Jadui Pitara) based on NCF FS was launched on 20th Feb, 2023. It is a play-based learning teaching material tailored for children between the age group of 3 to 8 years.

5. PARAKH: (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) is an independent vertical under NCERT, set up on 8th February, 2023. It has developed the Holistic 360-degree progress card for the Foundational and Preparatory stage. At present the HPC at the Foundational and Preparatory stage is being finalized for implementing it from the year 2023-24.

6. NDEAR: The vision of NDEAR is to create a unifying national digital infrastructure to energise and catalyse the education ecosystem. NDEAR is a super connector to cross leverage school education ecosystem capabilities and catalyse innovation in skilling and education. NDEAR has witnessed 1500+ Micro courses, 5 billion+ Learning sessions, 12 billion+ QR codes, 20K+ ecosystem participants, 15K+ Micro improvements ongoing across the various linked building blocks.

7PM e-VIDYA: A comprehensive initiative called PM e-VIDYA unifies digital/online/on-air education to enable coherent multi-mode access to education. It includes: DIKSHA (Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing) as One Nation One Digital Platform for Education which is a storehouse of over 3.17 lakh e-contents, 6,600 Energized Textbooks in 36 Languages (29 Indian languages and 7 Foreign Languages) with average daily page hits of 2.2+ crores and is amongst the 4 Digital Public Goods identified by Govt. of India12 Swayam Prabha TV Channels under the one class, one TV channel initiative with more than 7000 programs Radio/Community Radio broadcasting/Mobile Podcast with 4000+ pieces of curriculum based radio programs (Classes 1 -12) disseminated/ broadcasted on 398 Radio Stations (11 GyanVani FM Radio Stations, 255 Community Radio Stations and 132 All India Radio stations), Podcasts on iRadio and JioSaavn Mobile apps and 2900+ live programs have been broadcast on iRadio, and For Children with special needs, 4200+ Indian Sign language (ISL) based contents, Talking books (in Daisy format) and 3860+ Audio Books have been developed. All 10,000 ISL dictionary words have been uploaded on DIKSHA. Additionally, one DTH channel is being operated specifically for hearing impaired students in sign language.

8Integrated Teacher Education Programme (ITEP): 41 Central/State University/Institutions which include IITs, NITs, RIEs and Government Colleges will run this Programme from academic session 2023-24. The ITEP is a Dual Major Programme -the first major is in Education with School Stage specialization and the second major is in an opted discipline.

9. National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST): NPST is a statement of quality and defines competencies of teachers at different stages/levels and performance appraisal based on those competencies. The Guiding Document has been developed through extensive consultation with stakeholders, field level research and due deliberations.

10. National Mission for Mentoring (NMM): NMM focuses on Competency enhancement of school teachers through the professional support provided by mentors. “Bluebook on Mentoring” developed through extensive consultations with stakeholders, field level research and due deliberations. Thereafter, NMM was piloted in 30 central government schools across the country (15 KVs, 10 JNVs, and 5 CBSE). So far, 60 mentors have onboarded and the web portal is being made operational for conducting mentoring sessions.

11Vidyanjali Portal : Supports a community/volunteer management program, through which the community/volunteers interact and connect directly with schools of their choice to share their knowledge and skills as well as contribute in the form of assets/material/equipment. At present, a total of 4,76,412 schools have onboarded while a total of 4,19,485 volunteers have registered, impacting 5561193 children.

12. New India Literacy Programme (नव भारत साक्षरता कार्यक्रम) ULLAS- Understanding of Lifelong Learning for All in Society “जन - जन साक्षर”: A centrally sponsored scheme on Education for All (erstwhile known as Adult Education), “ New India Literacy Programme or ULLAS” targeting all non-literates age 15 years and above, has been approved by the Government of India with a financial outlay of Rs.1037.90 crore for implementation during FY 2022-23 to 2026-27, in alignment with NEP 2020. The scheme is being implemented through volunteerism.


Initiatives for Learner-Centric Education

1. National Credit Framework (NCrF) jointly developed by the Regulators of School, Skill and Higher Education released on 10.04.2023 provides framework for accumulation of credit from academics, skill programmes and relevant experience. Along with the provision of Multiple Entry and Exit and Academic Bank of Credit, this will allow seamless mobility of learners between various streams, making education truly multidisciplinary.

2. National Higher Education Qualification Framework (NHEQF) released on 11.05.2023 is an instrument for development, classification and recognition of qualification from Level 4.5 to 8 (1st yr. UG to Doctoral programme). It defines learning outcomes at different levels.. It will facilitate national and international equivalence and comparability, inter/intra streams / institutional mobility, multiple learning pathways, lifelong learning, ensures confidence of Public in HE System.

3. Curriculum and Credit Framework for Undergraduate Programs - It incorporates a flexible choice-based credit system, multidisciplinary approach, and multiple entry and exit options. This will facilitate flexibility to move from one discipline of study to another, one institution to another, switch to alternative modes of learning (offline, ODL, & Online learning, and hybrid modes of learning), multiple entry and exit options with UG (certificate/diploma/degree) and to choose the courses of their interest in all disciplines. 105 Universities have adopted it as per the data reported to UGC.

4. Regulation on Academic Bank of Credit - ABC is a digital or virtual or online store-house of academic credit data base of Higher Education Institution . It will provide authenticated records of credits earned by students from Registered Higher Education Institutions. ABC will ensure the opening, closure and validation of Academic Bank Accounts, credit verification, accumulation, and transfer or redemption. As of now 1413 Universities/INIs/HEIs are onboarded with 1.10 crore ABC ID.

5. Guidelines for pursuing two Academic Programmes simultaneously -It will facilitate multiple pathways of learning involving both formal and non-formal education modes.

6. Minimum standards and procedures for award of Ph.D. degree regulations- These regulations are framed to encourage research scholars to become well-trained researchers and inquisitive explorers. Women candidates and persons with disability will be given extra time (additional 2 years) to finish their research. Candidates, who have scored above a CGPA of 7.5, can now apply for a PhD after completing a four-year Bachelor's degree. HEIs may decide their own selection procedure for Ph.D. admission of international students. It also provides for discontinuance of M. Phil programme.

7Promotion of Indian Languages in education

AICTE has permitted 49 Engineering Courses across 12 States in 7 regional languages; MBBS Course has been started in Hindi ; Common University Entrance Test conducted in 13 Languages

and participated by 242 Universities; JEE (Mains) and NEET (UG) conducted in 13 languages involving about more than 30 lakhs students ; text books are being translated into multiple Indian languages through an AI based App Anuvadini, developed by AICTE


1. Open & Distance Learning Programmes and Online Programmes) Regulation, 2020 : These regulations lay down the criteria for allowing institutions to run ODL programmes. 95 HEIs (71 recognized and 24 Category-I HEIs) are recognized entitled to offer 1149 ODL programmes. 66 HEIs are recognized / entitled to offer 371 online programmes.

2. UGC (Credit Framework for Online Learning Courses through SWAYAM) Regulation Under this regulation percentage of courses of MOOCs from the SWAYAM platform towards credit transfer is enhanced from 20 % to 40%. It provides flexibility and opportunity for lifelong learning. It also enables Institutions HEIs to offer multi-disciplinary in their course. 288 Universities have adopted SWAYAM Courses for Credit Transfer. Around 86 lakhs learners are registered in the Jan 2022, July 2022 and Jan 2023 semester. More than 5 lakh students are taking exams and getting certified on SWAYAM in every year.

3. Technology enabled Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) based Solutions for Governance of HEIs starting from Admission to Grant of Degree – Smarter Automation Engine for Universities (SAMARTH) is an ICT initiative sponsored by the Ministry of Education to revolutionize the current education management system by implementing an automation engine for various universities and other Higher Education Institutes. It will facilitate HEIs in administration of HEIs and management of students from admission to grant of degree. At present 1249 Univ. & HEIs are onboarded and covering in 27 States and 4 UTs. 7 State Higher Education departments are also onboarded.


Following are the aspects focusing on skill development under NEP, 2020

  1. Integration of vocational education with general education
  2. Convergence and integration of skills across disciplines/sectors
  3. Technology-enabled learning
  4. Entrepreneurship and life skills
  5. Teacher training and professional development
  6. Experiential learning through internship and apprenticeship
  7. Continuous evaluation
  8. Fostering global competence in skill development
  9. Inclusive and sustainable skills
  10. Skilling in regional languages
  11. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for a Credit Framework, facilitating mobility between general and vocational education, creating a seamless educational journey for students.

Ranking of all HEIs in the top 400 has improved in QS 2023

  • Number of Indian Univ./HEI increased from 13 (2015) to 45 (2024) in QS Ranking
  • Indian HEIs in top 500 increased to 11 in 2024 as compared to 7 in 2015 QS Ranking
  • India has improved its position in the QS World University Rankings by Subject, 2023, with 44 courses, in their respective subject categories, ranked among the Global top 100.
  • 11 declared Institutes of Eminence (IoEs) account for 44 % of the 355 Programmes / courses ranked in QS World University Ranking by Subject.
  • Indian universities in QS 2023-24 subject rankings saw an 18.7% rise making India the 2nd most represented Asian country with 66 ranked universities.
  • India showed improvement in both publications and number of citations (a measure of impact) –
  • India is ranked 3rd globally in 2022, with 2,75,367 publications, as compared to 5th rank in 2016, with 157539 publications. (Source: Scimago Journal and Country Rank)
  • In number of citations India ranked 4th out of 113 countries as compared to 11th rank out of 94 countries in 2016.



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